Nano Technology Overview

Nanotechnology

Goals:
consider the term nanotechnology; To study the use of nanotechnology in chemistry; Stop at the consideration of the nanotube device, its application in medicine, epigenetics for a new approach to tracking changes in DNA; Using a new nanostructure to capture carbon dioxide; to study the use of nanotechnology in the textile industry.

Challenges:
to study the concept of “nanotechnology”; Consider the use of nanotechnology in chemistry; Disassemble the device of nanotubes, stop at its application in medicine; Read the latest innovations in tracking changes in DNA; Consider the role of nanostructures in environmental issues; delve into the importance of nanotechnology in the textile industry.

The concept of Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is a field of science and technology that deals with methods of research, analysis and synthesis, as well as methods of production and application of products with a given atomic structure through controlled manipulation of individual atoms and molecules. The first appearance of nanotechnology is related to Richard Feynman’s “The World Is Full of Places” at the California Institute of Technology in 1959 at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society. Richard Feynman suggested that it is possible to mechanically move single atoms, with the help of a manipulator of the appropriate size, at least such a process would not contradict the known to date physical laws. This manipulator he proposed to do the following way. It is necessary to build a mechanism that would create a copy, only an order of magnitude smaller. The smaller mechanism created should again create its copy, again an order of magnitude smaller and so until the size of the mechanism is commensurate with the size of one atom. The term “nanotechnology” or “nanotechnology” was coined by Norio Taniguchi, a professor at the University of Tokyo, in 1974 in the context of processing materials by adding or removing an atom or molecule. The main unit of measurement is a nanometer (nm); 1 nm q 0, m.

Nanotechnology in Chemistry
The main applications of nanotechnology in chemistry are associated with the development of next-generation catalysts. A key problem in trying to use nanostructural materials is the difficulty of stabilizing the shape and size of nanocrystal particles. Moreover, in the field of chemical technologies it is necessary to take into account the constant change in the composition of the nanoparticle itself, its geometric size, structure, the formation of products of interaction of the surface with the environment, which in turn also does not remain constant during the process. Gold has been found to be a very promising catalyst. If you divide a piece of gold into small fragments before getting nanoparticles the size of only a few atoms, the gold becomes chemically extremely active. And we are facing a whole new, unknown world of reactions that it can accelerate. First of all, it is an oxidation reaction in which gold helps a molecule of one of the reagents to attach an oxygen atom. Until now, chemists-technologists had to use for this purpose very aggressive, and often also poisonous substances – for example, chromium compounds. Gold as a “green” catalyst allows to carry out harmless oxidation reactions using atmospheric oxygen.

Basic nanomaterials:
Carbon nanotubes of Fullerene Graphene Nanocrystals Self-cleaning aerogel surfaces based on lotus effect

Nanotubes
long cylindrical structures with a diameter of one to several dozen nanometers and up to several centimeters long, consisting of one or more hexagonal graphite planes (graphene) and usually ending with a semispheric head.

Application of nanotubes:
Mechanical applications: super-strength threads, composite materials, nanoweights. Applications in microelectronics: transistors, nanowires, transparent conductive surfaces, fuel cells. To create connections between biological neurons and electronic devices in the latest neurocomputer developments. Capillary applications: capsules for active molecules, storage of metals and gases, nano pipettes. Miniature sensors to detect molecules in a gas environment or ultra-high sensitivity solutions. Such nanosensors can be used to monitor the environment, in military, medical and biotechnology applications.

The researchers
were able to create artificial muscle fibers that can twist at high speed along their axis in both directions, while exerting a significant load. A team of researchers led by Ray Baugman of the University of Texas weaved a thread of thousands of carbon nanotubes, each with a diameter of about 10 nm. The researchers were able to create spiral-shaped strands of yarn with a diameter of 10 microns and a few centimeters long. When using such a filament as an electrode and placing it in an electrolyte containing a second electrolyte and an electrical current to the system, the filament begins to rotate, twisting in one direction at high speed until reaching the limit of the twist; when the potential difference changes, the spin begins in the opposite direction. Researchers have demonstrated that the harness is capable of rotating in different directions, while rotating it makes more than 40 full revolutions with an average rotation speed of about 600 revolutions per minute. The harness retains the ability to rotate even if it is associated with a payload, the weight of which is 2000 times the mass of the harness itself. It is believed that the system will soon be able to find use in micro capillary systems.

Chemists

from the United States have developed a new method of detecting chemical modification of a single-strand dna molecule, linking it with a pair of carbon nanotubes. The developed technique is that initially in a single-wall carbon nanotube a gap is etched, after which a single-stranded DNA is placed in this gap, which is attached to the two ends of the torn nanotube; at the final stage, the resulting system was connected to the source of the electric current. Chris Schofield of Oxford, who studies the chemical mechanisms of epigenetics, notes that the technique developed by American colleagues is very convenient, and is a very promising approach to tracking changes in DNA, which is important for research in the field of epigenetics. When the DNA changes chemically changes, the conduction of the nucleic acid/nanotube system changes, and these changes in conductivity are tracked by a new device.

Environmental Nanostructures: 

An edible sponge for carbon dioxide Last year, researchers from Fraser Stoddart’s lab reported the creation of a new type of nanostructures of sugar, salt and alcohol. A new work by the same research team focuses on the fact that the nanostructure they create can effectively recognize, absorb and store carbon dioxide. The acid-core indicator, moving from yellow color to red, indicates the degree of saturation of the frame structure with carbon dioxide. One of the study’s authors, Ross Forgan, notes that, in his opinion, the main advantage of the new system for CO2 absorption – its carbon neutrality – “sponge” absorbing carbon dioxide, created on the basis of natural compounds – products of carbon dioxide binding, so it is not only non-toxic, but also most effectively solves the problem of reducing atmospheric carbon. This feature allowed the researchers to develop a simple method of determining the fact of the extreme absorption of carbon dioxide by a new material – the researchers introduced into the crystals a new metal-organic frame structure acid-core indicator. The simplicity of the new metal-organic frame structure, its low cost and environmental safety make it possible to commercialize the new system. The results are a unique demonstration that a relatively simple chemical system can be successfully applied to such important issues as carbon dioxide fixation and sensory technology.

Nanomaterials

In nanomaterial textiles acquires unique in terms of water resistance, dirt repulsion, thermal conductivity, ability to conduct electricity and other properties. Nanomaterials can contain nanoparticles, nanofibers and other additives. For example, Nano-Tex successfully manufactures fabrics improved with nanotechnology. One of these fabrics provides absolute water resistance: thanks to the change in the molecular structure of the fibers, water droplets completely roll off the canvas, which at the same time “breathes”. And the American company NanoSonic has developed a unique technology that allows to create materials with impossible properties in nature, in particular, sheets of polymer, flexible and elastic, like rubber, and conducting current as metal. The new product was called Metall Rubber- Metall rubber. From the “hot novelties” of the textile nano market it is worth noting the insulation material Aspen’s Pyrogel AR5401, made on the basis of polymer material with nanopores. Thanks to them, the material behaves like a good heat insulator. Nano-coatings of nanotechnology are also used to improve the properties of traditional textiles and products from it. In this case, the textiles are covered with coatings that modify it in micron and submicron-sized ranges. Energy-saving technology cleans the surface of textiles without the use of chemicals and energy, solely under the influence of nanocatalysizers caused by traditional textile equipment, sunlight and water. Examples of such coatings include decontaminating coatings based on silver and zinc nanoparticles, as well as coatings that create a stable layer that does not allow ultraviolet light.

Electronics
Integration into textiles micro and nanoelectronics significantly expands the possibilities of everyday clothing, which can be used as a means of communication and even a personal computer. And the manufacture of textiles with built-in sensors will allow to provide monitoring of the state of the human body. This will certainly open up new opportunities in medical practice, sports and life support in extreme conditions. Maggie Orth, a researcher at MIT, is trying to make clothes display. Her company, International Fashion Machines, manufactures fabric from a patented “electronic yarn” – a set of conductive and non-conductive threads covered with ink that change color depending on the temperature of the threads. Heating the threads caused by the leaking of low voltage electric current makes the ink change color, and the previously applied “pattern” (in the form of a thread configuration) begins to appear on the fabric. Maggie claims that as early as 2006, “electronic yarn” technology, in conjunction with the technology of “textile sensor” will be used in a variety of products: from large screens mounted in carpets, to lampshades that change color from touch. Using this technology in clothing, according to Maggie herself, prematurely before the development of new electrochromic ink, which will allow to consume less energy. So far, clothes from such textiles can be worn only at home – you can always “recharge.” One of Maggie’s favorite ideas is to create clothes that predict the weather. The cloak, equipped with a display, will change color depending on what the weather is on the nose. And if the forecast is unfavorable, the owner should go home for an umbrella. To learn the weather cloak will be on the Internet with the help of wireless technology. Researchers from arizona State University under the direction of Professor Frederick Tsinggausern are trying to create biometric clothing by integrating into the usual tights often used by athletes, flexible display, a set of sensors for detecting harmful substances, microscopic fuel cell, micro-pumps, etc. where he will check the patient’s condition (e.g. diabetic) and make the necessary injections in time.

Conclusion:
Nanotechnology is of great importance in human life. They are used everywhere: in chemistry, biology, physics, medicine. In our time, new methods of studying DNA molecules are being developed with their help, new materials are created (nano-coatings, insulation materials, metallized rubber), the level of ecology in the environment (the sponge – a carbon dioxide retainer) is being developed, new discoveries are achieved in medicine (artificial muscles from nanotubes). This range of fields of science and technology is rapidly changing under the influence of new discoveries taking place almost every month. The world does not stand still, and in the future we will see quite a lot of new discoveries and inventions in the field of nanotechnology.

 

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